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Flame retardants

We work with the Washington State Department of Health, along with industry and environmental stakeholders, to identify and take action against to phase out the use, release, and exposure to flame retardants in Washington. Working with partners, we have developed a chemical action plan to reduce or eliminate the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), one type of flame retardant.

What are flame retardants?

Flame retardants are a group of chemicals made up of several classes of chemicals, each with diverse chemical and physical properties that influence their effectiveness and use in consumer products.

We began to evaluate a type of flame retardants called polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Since then we have investigated additional flame retardants, particularly replacements for PBDEs.

Sources and exposure

Manufacturers add flame retardants to foam, plastics, textiles, and other products to meet flammability standards and are intended to slow the spread of a fire and provide additional escape time. Many children's products like car seats, pajamas, mattresses, baby carriers, and children's furniture contain flame retardants.

Studies show PBDEs and other flame retardants have been escaping from products and accumulating in people and the environment. PBDEs are found in human breast milk, blood, fat, household dust, indoor air, fish, wildlife, birds, beef, dairy products, and sediments.

Toxicity and health effects

The potential health effects from exposure to flame retardants include carcinogenicity, endocrine and reproductive effects, and neurological and developmental disorders. Consumer products that children are exposed to, like furniture, are of higher concern. 

Taking action against flame retardants

Manufacturers voluntarily agreed to stop producing two kinds of PBDEs, Penta-BDE and Octa-BDE, by the end of 2004. Washington was the first state to ban a third kind of PBDE, Deca-BDE, and subsequently manufacturers of Deca-BDE agreed to stop producing, importing, and selling it by 2012 in the U.S. Before the 2011 ban went into effect, Ecology and Department of Health performed an alternatives assessment to identify a safer and technically feasible alternative that met fire safety standards.

Chemical action plan recommendations

The chemical action plan for PBDE recommended prohibiting the use of PBDEs in specific products, which the Legislature passed in 2008. Our 2015 report to the Legislature added further recommendations, including:

  • Restricting the use of eight flame retardants commonly used in children's products and furniture.
  • Restricting the use of TBBPA and HBCD in textiles used in children's products and furniture.
  • Requiring that manufacturers report their use of all flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products.

History of actions to address flame retardants in Washington

2016 - Washington amends the Children’s Safe Products Act to ban the use of five flame retardant chemicals from children’s products and in residential furniture and the Legislature directs Ecology and the Department of Health to study whether six additional flame retardants should be added to the list of Chemicals of High Concern to Children.

2015 - Ecology releases a report recommending actions to address toxic flame retardants in response to a directive from the Legislature.

2014 - Ecology study finds that manufacturers have moved away from using PBDE in consumer products sold in Washington.

2008 - Washington bans the sale of products containing PBDE.

2006 - Ecology finalizes chemical action plan for PBDE.